Eulalia Moreno Mañas


Education and Training

PhD Zoology. Universidad Complutense. Madrid. 1985.
Fleming Fellowship (British Council). Sub-Department of Ornithology. Natural History Museum. UK. 1987-88.
Postdoctoral Fellowships. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales – CSIC. Madrid. 1988-1993.

Other information

EEP coordinator for Gazella cuvieri

Studbook keeper for Gazella cuvieri (co-studbook keeper: Gerardo Espeso)

Member of the Taxonomic and Advisory Group of Antelopes and Giraffes of the EAZA and chair of its Research subgroup

Member of the Scientific Committee of the EAZA (European Association for Zoos and Aquaria)

Member of the Scientific Council of the Spanich MaB Committee (2009-2012)

Member of the IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group (2001-2003)

Postal Address:
Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas – CSIC
Ctra. de Sacramento s/n
E-04120 Almería (SPAIN)
Tel: +34 950 281045
Fax: +34 950 277100


Research Interests

There are three primary lines of research I am interested in:

Population biology, trying to develop tools for enhancing captive breeding management. Captive breeding of a threatened species is an important and in some cases very successful tool for species conservation. For most captive breeding programmes a studbook is maintained which include detailed records of information such as births, deaths, genealogical relationships, and other biological data for all the individuals of the species maintained in captivity. By using studbook data of the species of ungulates housed in La Hoya Experimental Field Station (Nanger dama mhorr and Gazella cuvieri), I try to provide an insight into the demographic information of the registered populations to be used further in their management and captive breeding programmes and future re-introductions.
 • Conservation genetics of endangered ungulates. Since small populations are likely to lose genetic variation and suffer from inbreeding depression, I try to implement conservation strategies designed in genetic terms to monitor and avoid these effects as short-term goals, and to retain reestablishment or adaptive potential in nature (reintroduced populations) as the long-term goal.
 • Birds and global change. Although there is no perfect indicator, many studies suggest birds meet a broad array of criteria defined to select one taxon as indicator of climate change. We are interested in identifying bird species that can be used as indicators of global change in arid and semi-arid environments. They are ecologically fragile habitats. Their species exhibit a restrictive geographical distribution and a wide range of morphological, physiological and even behavioural adaptations to their harsh environment. Very likely  some of these "arid" birds represent keystone species potentially useful as indicators of the effect of global change.  We try to develop a practical approach to be used by wildlife managers and policymakers to identify indicators of global change by using bird data.


1) Current projects

* Reintroduction of Cuvier's Gazelle in Djebel Serj National Park (Tunisia) 

In January 2015 an “Accord Cadre de Cooperation Scientifique et Technique” between the Direction Générale des Forêst (DGF) and the CSIC-EEZA was signed to undertake a reintroduction project taking advantage of the captive breeding programmes of endangered gazelles developed by the CSIC for the last 45 years. Its main aim is to reintroduce Cuvier’s gazelles in several Tunisian protected areas, with the final objectives of facilitating the restauration of viable populations of this endangered gazelle in part of its historical range of distribution. Fourty three individuals (12 males and 31 females) of this species were reintroduced in Jebel Serj in October 2016. Between March and August 2017, 27 calves were borne.

Learn more about this project clicking here:


• Biotic and abiotic determinants of the spatio-temporal variation in host-parasite interactions (CGL2012-34735). Jan 2015-Dec 2018

Disease occurs non-randomly in space and factors such as climate, physical habitat characteristics, community context, host species identity and parasite species identity may account for such variation. Yet, our understanding on how biotic and abiotic factors determine host-parasite interactions is still limited and we ignore much about the general rules and mechanisms explaining the above-mentioned relationships. Another important gap in our knowledge about emerging infectious diseases is that, while the host specificity between specific hosts and parasites has been frequently revealed, the specificity between parasites and their vectors remains largely neglected even for major host-vector-parasite systems. This shortcoming has been suggested as the major obstacle to dealing with the current emerging infectious diseases crisis.
The main goal of this project is to disentangle the context dependency of local host-parasite interactions and the relative importance of the processes influencing parasitism intensity by following a community ecology-oriented approach encompasing various study systems and spatio-temporal scales. We also aim at uncovering some mechanisms underlying the links between habitat and disease, both between hosts and parasites and between hosts, vectors and haematozoan parasites. The general hypothesis of the project is that environmental conditions strongly influence, either directly and/or indirectly, the occurrence of epidemics and host-parasite interactions. Specifically the project focuses on:
- the effect of spatial and temporal variation in climatic conditions on the ecto and endoparasitic community of several study systems,
- the effect of physical features of the habitat on the ectoparasitic community of an avian guild and on parasite dispersal via its influence on local host density and host community structure,
- the evaluation of the variability and context dependency of local host-parasite interactions,
- the identification of the host-vector-parasite associations in our study systems.
The strength of this project relies on its broad framework that jointly considers the interactions among biotic drivers (e.g. host density), and abiotic/physical drivers of epidemics. This approach is necessary for a complete understanding of disease ecology once the study of host-parasite interactions in isolation has proved insufficient. Moreover, by studying patterns of variation of parasitisation across a range of scales, we can gain insight into the relative importance of different processes involved in the dynamics of diseases. This project will improve the understanding of links between climate, microclimate, habitat structure, species interactions, and parasitism. Highlighting these links and the underlying mechanisms is necessary to predict accurately the likelihood of epidemics in particular locations, what is of major interest fin the current scenario of climate warming. Finally, if the vectorial role of some of our study species is confirmed, this project will have a norteworthy impact because vector and host ecology are studied simultaneously and comprehensively to reveal their effects on the spread of avian haemoparasites.

• Global Change in Arid Ecosystems (GLOCHARID). Sub-project Biology: Fauna - Birds.

Funded by Consejería de Medio Ambiente. Junta de Andalucía through Centro Andaluz para la Evaluación y Seguimiento del Cambio Global (CAESG). Duration: 2010-2014.

Project Leader: Eulalia Moreno.

Project participants: Enrique López Carrique, Jesús Benzal


Evidence is accumulating that global warning in recent decades is altering many biological phenomena, including the geographical ranges and abundance of flora and fauna species, life cycles of parasites, patterns of migration, etc. More and more, scientists try to find out those ecosystem elements (biological processes, species or communities) that can be used to assess the quality of the environment and to predict how they change over time as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., land use changes, pollution,…). These ecosystem elements or “bioindicators” are then used by managers, scientists and policy makers to predict the impacts of global change drivers on biodiversity. One of the values of such bioindicators is to raise awareness of the biological consequences of climatic warning and to assist in guiding the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures.

In this project we have tried to identify some bird species that can be used as indicators of global change in arid and semi-arid environments. These are ecologically fragile habitats. Their species exhibit a restrictive geographical distribution and a wide range of morphological, physiological and even behavioral adaptations to their harsh environment. Some of these "arid" birds seem to represent keystone species potentially useful as indicators of the effect of global change. Based on climatic, land use and vegetation cover data provided by Junta de Andalucía (REDIAMand data of the distribution (and abundance) of several bird species, we propose to use a passerine (Trumpeter finch) and two raptors (Golden and Bonelli’s eagles) as potential indicators of global change in the arid and semiarid southeastern Spain. Serial data are available for collaborative research. Monitoring of the species is being currently undergone on a either yearly (raptors) or 4-5 years (finch) base.

Contact: Eulalia Moreno - Enrique López Carrique

Modelled changes in Trumpeter finch distribution and abundance in Almería province (southeast Spain) in response to projected climate change in Andalucía.

2) Full list of projects

• Efecto de factores ambientales en interacciones parásito-hospedador. Aplicabilidad a la conservación de fauna silvestre. (CGL2008 00562/BOS). 2009-2014. Abstract: Abiotic factors can influence host-parasite interactions in different ways, determining the distribution of the parasites or their vectors, modifying key aspects of their life cycles (with significant consequences both in terms of abundance or ability to synchronize their life cycles with the ones of the host ) and favouring specialization processes. However, our knowledge about the interaction between abiotic factors and host-parasite relations is limited in many basic aspects. Even though there is increasing evidence that implicates pathogens and parasites in population declines or identifies them as important threats to the conservation of endangered species, the risk posed by these organisms is hard to evaluate in absence of basic information. Moreover, even when such information is present it is uncommon to include it in management and conservation programmes. This is particularly the case of conservation programmes based on reintroduction of individuals kept out of their natural range that may result in increased exposure to parasites both for the focal species as well as for the native, non-managed species. This project aims at increasing our knowledge of the effect of key abiotic factors (namely temperature, humidity and photoperiod) on the distribution and life cycle of different parasites both in natural and human-managed conditions. Specifically, we intend to: i) gain basic knowledge of some main mechanisms, like diapause, hibernation and hypobiosis, by which parasites respond to abiotic factors, and the subsequent consequences of such mechanisms on the relationships between the parasites and their hosts, ii) assess the risk posed by parasites to conservation programmes based on the reintroduction of captive individuals by studying the effect of abiotic factors on the community of parasites of three endangered ungulate species at a broad spatial scale. By studying the relationship between abiotic factors, parasites and hosts in different systems (bird-ectoparasites, mammal-endoparasites) and circumstances (natural conditions, human-managed situations) and with a multidisciplinary approach (ecological, evolutionary, parasitological, veterinary), we intend to obtain conclusions applicable to conservation programs in an attempt to improve their success by integrating basic, frequently overlooked constituents of any ecological system, i.e. parasites and environmental factors.
• Reinforcement of the Nanger dama mhorr population in Senegal. Funded by the OAPN of the Spanish Ministry of Environment and the UNESCO. 2010-2014. Abstract: The reintroduction of threatened and endangered species has emerged as a widespread method for reestablishing populations to stave of extinction. But unfortunately success rates of establishing self-sustaining populations are low (typically less than 50%). Reintroduction projects are very expensive for the institutions participating in it, and big efforts have to be made to ensure their success. The IUCN guidelines for reintroductions stated that before doing any reinforcement, it is essential to identify those factors that have impeded the increase of the (reintroduced) population. Their elimination or reduction to a sufficient level to ensure a good chance of success in the subsequent reinforcement should be a previous step to the proper reinforcement. The main objective of this three-years project is, therefore, to identify the likely causes of the decline of a population of Nanger dama mhorr previously reintroduced in Senegal by testing several alternative, non exclusive hypotheses. The reinforcement of the population will be the final step.
FILM: La Gacela Perdida: Reforzamiento de la Gacela Mohor (Nanger dama mhorr) en Senegal (IP: Eulalia Moreno): (French and Spanish versions)

• Estudio de una especie de reciente colonización, Bucanetes githagineus, indicadora de zonas áridas: ecogenética, ecomorfología, ecofisiología e implicaciones para su conservación. REN2002-00169/GLO. 2002-2005.

• Consecuencias del manejo forestal sobre la diversidad y abundancia de las ornitocenosis en pinares y hayedos de la Comunidad foral de Navarra. Gobierno de Navarra. 2000-2002. (Co-leaders: J.J. Cuervo and E. Moreno).

• Estudio y seguimiento de las poblaciones de murciélagos u sus interacciones con los Parques Eólicos en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra. Gobierno de Navarra. 2000-2002. (Co-leaders: E. Moreno and J. Benzal).

• Estudio del Camachuelo Trompetero: Patrones de distribución y selección de hábitat en Andalucía. Junta de Andalucía. 2003.

• Modificaciones adaptativas de la extremidad posterior en los Passeriformes palustres: un estudio ecomorfológico y evolutivo.

• Plasticidad ecológica y morfología. La importancia del diseño en la reducción de costes de subordinación. DGES PB98 0506.1999-2002.

• Consecuencias ecológicas y evolutivas del diseño animal. Un estudio ecomorfológico utilizando Passeriformes como organismos modelo. DGES PB95 0103. 1996-1999.

• Plasticidad ecológica y plasticidad fenotípica. Un estudio biogeográfico con especies del género Parus. DGESIC. Acción Integrada Hispano-Francesa HF98-73. 1999-2000.

• Estudio del Camachuelo Trompetero: patrones de dispersión y demografía. 2004. Junta de Andalucía - EGMASA

• Etude pilote dans la région pyrénéenne (phase II). European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation (Under contract of the European Environment Agency). 1996.

• Harmonisation de la terminologie des données relatives aux espèces. European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation (Under contract of the European Environment Agency). July 1996-January 1997.

• Base de données sur les synonymes d’espèces. European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation (Under contract of the European Environment Agency). May-November 1997.

• Mise à jour de la base de données EUNIS sur les synonymes d’espèces. European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation (Under contract of the European Environment Agency). 1998.

• Background data and information for the EEA report on biodiversity in Europe on species and habitats in arid lands in the Mediterranean part of Europe. Agencia Europea de Medio Ambiente. 2000. 1999

• DGICYT/Kernfor-schungenszentrum Karlsruhe (GMBH) . HA 39ª. 1990. IP.


Publications  (Please, e-mail me if you are interested in getting a reprint, copy, or additional information. Or write to my postal address. 


Podcast: <iframe src="" frameBorder="0" width="100%" height="110px" allow="autoplay"></iframe> Associated article: Genetic purging in captive endangered ungulates with extremely low effective population sizes Heredityvolume 127pages433–442 (2021)



Deployment of Solar Energy at the Expense of Conservation Sensitive Areas Precludes Its Classification as an Environmentally Sustainable Activity


Systematics and the management units of the dama gazelle Nanger dama.


Ardeola, a scientific journal of ornithology: Cooperative survivorship within the Red Queen game


Anillamiento científico: estado actual y perspectivas de futuro

Molecular Ecology -pdf

Refugia, colonization and diversification of an arid-adapted bird: Coincident patterns between genetic data and ecological niche modelling

Quercus -pdf

Sobre malvasías paquistaníes y otras consideraciones


Camachuelo Trompetero. En, SEO/BirdLife: Atlas de las aves en invierno en España 2007-2010, pp. 532-533. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente-SEO/BirdLife. Madrid. ISBN: 978-84-8014-840-5

Animal Conservation

Parity, but not inbreeding, affects juvenile mortality in two captive endangered gazelles

Rev. Écol. La Terre et al Vie

Vegetation structure in beech-fir forests:Effects on the avian community

De Harpij -pdf

Project ter versterking van de populatie damagazellen in Senegal (Reinforcement of the dama gazelle population in Senegal)

Journal for Nature Conservation

Mother traits and offspring sex in two threatened gazelle species in captivity.

Mammalian Biology

No inbreeding effects on body size in two captive endangered gazelles

Etologuia -pdf

Tras la pista de un recién llegado: ¿de dónde vienen y adónde van los camachuelos trompeteros?


Los programas de cría en cautividad: Una herramienta necesaria para la conservación de especies amenazadas

La Garcilla

La conducta de las aves en un ambiente extremo

Journal of Arid Environments -pdf

Breeding parameters of the trumpeter finch at the periphery of its range: A case study with mainland expanding and island populations

En: Conservación y desarrollo en la Meseta de Tagant (Mauritania)

Resturación de ungulados sahelo-saharianos en la Meseta de Tagant

Acta Oecologica -pdf

Plasticity of nest site selection in the trumpeter finch: a comparison between two habitats

Journal of Biogeography -pdf

Colonization patterns and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the trumpeter finch (Bucanetes githagineus) from Northwest Africa, the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula


Morphological Evolution of Spiders Predicted by Pendulum Mechanics

Cuvier's Gazelle, Gazella cuvieri, International Studbook. Managing and Husbandry Guidelines. Editado por el Ayuntamiento de Roquetas de Mar (Área de Cultura). Almería. 152 pp. ISBN:978-84-936827-0-5

En: Las Aves de Andalucía. Una visión dibujada.

El Camachuelo Trompetero: un recién llegado a España

PloS ONE 3(3)

Morphological evolution of spiders predicted by pendulum mechanics

Ardeola -pdf

Suitable cavities as a scarce resource for both cavity and non-cavity nesting birds in managed temperate forests. A case study in the Iberian Peninsula

Acta Ornithologica -pdf

Does habitat structure affect body condition of nestlings? A case study with woodland great tits Parus major

Annales Zoologici Fennici

Seed selection by the Trumpeter finch, Bucanetes githagineus. What currency does this arid land species value?

Journal of Ornithology -pdf

Temperature but not rainfall influences timing of breeding in a desert bird, the trumpeter finch (Bucanetes githagineus)

Ecoscience -pdf

Thriving in an arid environment: High prevalence of avian lice in low humidity conditions


Northward expansion of a desert bird: Effects of climate change?

Manuales de Conservación de la Naturaleza, 3. Consejería de Medio Ambiente. Junta de Andalucía. Sevilla

Camachuelo Trompetero. En M. Yanes y J.M. Delgado: Aves Esteparias en Andalucía. Bases para su conservación


Forelimb muscles and migration: finding ecomorphological patterns using a phylogenetically-based method

Las aves y los estudios ecomorfológicos. En, J. L. Tellería (Ed.): La Ornitología hoy. Homenaje al Profesor Francisco Bernis, pág. 53-71. Editorial Complutense. Madrid.


Una visión de la ornitología española a través de 50 años de Ardeola

Ecoscience -pdf

Cell-mediated immune response affects food intake but not body mass: an experiment with wintering great tits

Ethology -pdf

Effect of daily body mass variation on the foraging behaviour of tit species (Parus spp.)

Journal of Arid Environments -pdf

Low prevalence of haematozoa in Trumpeter finches Bucanetes githagineus from Southeastern Spain: additional support for a restricted distribution of blood parasites in arid lands

Avian Science -pdf

Sex differences in T-cell-mediated immune response in great tits Parus major.

Ecoscience -pdf

Differences in daily mass gain between subordinate species are explained by differences in ecological plasticity

Ethology -pdf

Foraging behaviour of subordinate Great Tits (Parus major). Can morphology reduce the costs of subordination?.

Oecologia -pdf

Ecological plasticity by morphological design reduces costs of subordination: influence on species distribution.


A phylogenetically-based analysis on the relationship between wing morphology and migratory behaviour in Passeriformes


Effects of body mass on the foraging behaviour of subordinate Coal Tits Parus ater

Journal of Zoology, London

Ecomorphological patterns related to migration. A comparative osteological study with passerines


Effects of body mass on subordinates foraging behaviour in Coal Tits, Parus ater


Social relationships in great tits (Parus major), wintering in a mountainous habitat in Central Spain


Evolution of foraging strategies in shorebirds : an ecomorphological approach

Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

Hindlimb morphology and locomotor performance in waders. An evolutionary approach

Polar Biol

The effect of nest size on stone-gathering behaviour in the chinstrap penguin


Ecomorphological patterns related to migration in the genus Sylvia : an osteological analysis

Colonial Waterbirds

Age-related variations in bill size of chinstrap penguins


Breeding time, health and immune response in the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antartica

Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences

Should congruence between intra- and interspecific ecomorphological relationships be expected ? A case study with the great tit, Parus major

The Auk

Morphological aspects of avian tail movements: A functional approach in hirundines

Netherlands Journal of Zoolgy

Convergence in insectivorous aerial feeding birds

Canadian Journal of Zoology

Ecological plasticity of morphological designs. An exterimental analysis with Tit species


Hoarding Nuthatches spend more time hiding a husked seed than an unhusked seed

Evolutionary Ecology

Morphological evolution and changes in foraging behaviour of island and mainland populations of Blue Tit Parus caeruleus. A test of convergence and ecomorphological hypotheses


Hindlimb morphology and feeding postures in four species of Parus species. An experimental ecomorphological approach


Food caching vs immediate consumption in the Nuthatch: the effect of social context

Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

Ecomorphological pattern of aerial feeding in Oscines (Passeriformes: Passeri)

Journal für Ornithology

Scanning behaviour and spatial niche

Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde

Distribution pattern of small mammal fauna along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Northern Spain

Canadian Journal of Zoology

Proximal costs and benefits of heterospecific social foraging in Great Tit Parus major

Canadian Journal of Zoology

Pelvic appendage musculature of the Treecreepers (Passeriformes: Certhiidae). Myological adaptations for tail-supported climbing

Ethology, Ecology and Evolution

Patch residence time and vigilance in birds foraging at feeders. Implications of bill shape


The musculi flexor perforatus digiti II and flexor digitorum longus in Paridae

Annales Zoologici Fennici

Form and function of the fibularis brevis muscle in some passerine birds

Holarctic Ecology

Ecomorphological relationships in a group of insectivorous birds of temperate forests in winter

Hanak, V., Horacek, I. & Gaisler (eds.) European Bat Research

On the bat fauna distribution in Madrid (Central Spain. En:



Ctra. de Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120, Almería (Spain)

Tel: (+34) 950281045 Fax: (+34) 950277100 ISN: 0*1592 sip: Skype: voip.eeza


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